Tips to Start Mushroom Farming In India: The Mushroom Farming is having a tremendous scope. Mushroom is one of the main dishes in India and throughout the world. The people who are not eating chicken, they can eat mushrooms. Mushrooms contain Vitamins and Minerals which are good for health. If the population increases the demand for mushroom is increasing. Mushrooms are having huge scope throughout the world.
Tips To Start Mushroom Farming | Process of Mushroom Cultivation:
There are some tips to start Mushroom cultivation and some of them are on the table.
|Steps involved in Mushroom Cultivation.||Tips to start Mushroom Farming.|
|Step 1||Compost Preparation.|
Mushroom Growers In India:
There are two types of Mushroom Growers in India, they are seasonal growers and Around the year growers. Due to more demand, they grow white and Button Mushrooms. Most of the part these growers are from Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Tamilnadu, Hilly regions on Uttar Pradesh and North East. They take 2 to 3 crops per year.
Preparation of Compost In Mushroom Cultivation | Compost Preparation:
Compost Preparation plays a major role in Mushroom Farming. This Compost is nothing but decomposed substrates of organic wastes. They are 3 types.
Nature and Quality of Basic Materials:
While coming to the basic materials is Straw. Traditionally the farmers use Paddy straw and Wheat straw. But, nowadays these farmers are using Poultry manure and Baled Straw as compost in Mushroom Cultivation. Furthermore, nowadays the farmers are also using the compost of Maize Straw, Soybean Straw, Paddy Husk and more.
Organic and Inorganic Supplements of Button Mushroom Cultivation:
The following table gives the proper information.
|Wheat Straw||300 Kg|
|Poultry Manure||200 Kg|
|Rice Barn||50 Kg|
|Corn Liquor||5 litres obtained from 5 Kg Maize Grain.|
|Linseed Meal||7 Kg|
|Carbon : Nitrogen||17 : 1 Ratio|
Managing the Compost During the Composting:
There two methods of composting and they are Long method composting and Short method Composting. While coming to the long method composting the compost is prepared in open field or under the shed. If this compost is prepared in the open field then it should be protected from rainwater. By using some nets or terpene we can protect the compost. If it is under the shed we have to prepare a proper ventilation.
In this process, we have to chop the straw for 20 to 30 CM. Next the straw the should be spread on the floor and make it wet by sprinkling some water. After doing this process we have to put them in empty drums. Later we have to add some Ingredients like Gypsum, Poultry Manure, Rice Barn and more regarding your preferences. It takes few days to become perfect compost by storing in the drums. After this keep them on the ground and turn by the following table. The changes of compost can be noticeable by the following table.
|Management of Compost||NO. of days taken to become the Compost.|
|Stack the heap.||0 day|
|1st turning.||7th day|
|2nd turning.||14th day|
|3rd turning.||21st day|
|4th turning.||28th day add 10 to 15 Kg of Gypsums|
|5th turning.||32nd day Spray with Menaticide.|
|Final turning.||35th day day spray with insecticides.|
By following these practices day by day you prepare the perfect compost. After each turning sprays the water and makes it dry by evaporation. Here, you can notice the following.
- The compost can appear in light brown colour.
- It reduces the smell of Ammonia.
Spawn-Run in Mushroom Cultivation:
Spawn-Run can start after the preparation of Compost. The other name of Sprawn is Mushroom mycelium. Well, sterilized Mushroom mycelium should be brought from Laboratories for the better yield of Mushrooms in the compost. Spawning is the process of mixing spawn in the compost. The Spawn is added in the compost at the rate of 0.5% by weight and intimately mixed. The following tables show the proper spawning methods.
|Types of Spawning.||Aspects.|
|Double Layer Spawning.||Spawning is done in two stages, 1st by scattering the spawn on beds when half-filled with compost and then after the complete filling of containers. The spawn is gently pressed and containers covered with newspapers.|
|Top Layer Spawning.||In this case the spawn is planted just on the surface after filling the container with compost up to brim. Then a thin layer of compost is spread out over the spawn. This method is preferred if the compost is too wet.|
|Through Spawning.||The spawn grains are mixed throughout the compost.|
|Shake up Spawning.||In this case compost is thoroughly shaken up after one week of spawning and replaced in containers. After that either it is cased at once or few days later.|
|Spot Spawning.||The grain spawn is put in the holes at certain distance with a pointed stick or finger. Care is taken to ensure the close contact of inoculum with the surrounding compost so that mycelium develops quickly.|
The environmental conditions of Spawn-Run rate are below.
- The compost temperature is about 2° C
- This compost can be prevented by maintained by high humidity for drying.
- By recirculating the room air we have to maintain the Carbon dioxide level-up to 2% in the spawn running room.
- Maintain the room temperature up to 22° C to 25° C.
- If it is necessary then spray the water on the paper.
- It takes 10 to 15 for the complete colonization of Spawn.
- This Spawn can be taken from the growing room and stored at 2° C
Casing In Mushroom Cultivation | Casing to Start Mushroom Farming:
The Casing plays the major role in Mushroom Farming. Furthermore, the casing helps to increase the fertility and yield of Mushroom farming. In this process, the soil is preheated and mix with the vermiculture. While most of the Mushroom growers do not use Vermiculture. They use the waste manure of Horse or Cow. Some of the Mushroom growers use compost of manure mixture, Peat Moss, Coco fibre. Here we are going to provide the information of main characteristics of Casing material in Mushroom Farming.
- The casing should contain good water holding capacity.
- We must maintain some good aeration capacity.
- The texture of casing should be altering the water.
- The pH levels of a casing to be maintained at 7.0 to 7.5.
- Especially the casing should keep away from the diseases, insects and un-decomposed vegetable matters.
By maintaining al these aspects clearly and good, then mycelium can grow better and in hygienic condition. Furthermore, the soil casing is the following mixture.
- Soil: Peat mixture in 2:1 or 3:1 ratio.
- Soil and Sand mixture in 2:1 ratio.
- The rotten cow dung with light soil: 3:1 ratio.
After doing all these practices the soil has to heat to the normal sunlight at an average temperature according to daylight. This heating is the other name of sterilization of spoil from harmful microorganisms. Furthermore, after the completion of sterilization collect the whole casing material into small bags. Finally, add some mycelium into those bags and the cultivation process begins.
Harvesting in Mushroom Cultivation | Yield of Mushroom Farming:
This is the easy method to get the yield. If you Start Mushroom Farming yield gets very quick. You can harvest the yield after the 2 to 3 months of Mushroom Cultivation. Mushroom harvesting is a simple method you no need of more labour. They are growing on the surface of the casing. So it is easy to collect the mushrooms by picking in slow and gentle manner. You have to take more care while, Mushroom Picking. While packing the mushroom you have to notice that they are too smooth and soft. Furthermore, one should not apply more pressure and do not use any types of equipment to pick the mushrooms.
This is the process of Start Mushroom Farming in India. While we are going to provide the information regarding Cost per kg, Mushroom Farming Income. Furthermore, if you are having any doubts you can comment your questions in the comment box.