How to Start Onion Farming Guide for Beginners in India: India is one of the leading producers of vegetables and spices in the world. Among the few crops that are used as both vegetables and spices, onion is important. In the immature stage, it is used as a vegetable while in the mature stage it is used as the spice. It is utilized throughout the world in various food preparations. Besides they also possess great health benefits and also nutrition value on consumption. Hence, there is a great demand for onion in local and also in the international market. This forms the great opportunity for the farmers to meet the gap that prevails in the market for onion. Cultivation and maintenance of onion are also simple for the farmers this adds another advantage to them. Before entering into the cultivation lets get the brief understanding about the onion.
ONION: The scientific name of onion is Allium cepa while it belongs to the family “Amaryllidaceae” and genus “Allium”
HEALTH BENEFITS OF ONION:
As they are highly nutritious they result in high health benefits on consumption, onion provokes the immune system and hence it promotes the health of the individual.
- The juice of onion is also beneficial as it gives relief from an acute ear-ache problem.
- It posses chromium, mineral which is rarely found in food. Hence it is helpful in controlling sugar level which ultimately helpful for the diabetic patients.
- On regular consumption it is evident it prevents stomach cancer and breast cancer as it possesses a significant amount of quercetin.
- Few people feel burning sensation during urination but on consuming onion it cools down.
- With the help of Onion Juice, you can reduce the pain that you get by the honey bee stings.
- Onion is also helpful in treating heart and also cardio-vascular problems.
- It is also helpful in treating cough problems
- Onion is the excellent source of iron and hence on regular consumption, it balances the iron content in the body.
- They are also used in treating oral problems such as tooth decay.
- Besides they are also rich in vitamin-c.
MAJOR ONION PRODUCING COUNTRIES:
We have enlisted below the top and leading producers of onion in the world,
- The United States
However, it is followed by Netherland, Spain, Bangladesh, Ukraine, South Korea. These are the countries with the highest Onion Cultivation Yield.
OTHER NAMES OF ONION:
With different regions, the names changes. So does with the Onion. Onion is known in a different name in different places, for your information we have enlisted below,
- Pyaar-Hindi, Nepali
- Young kong -Chinese
AGROCLIMATIC CONDITIONS FOR ONION FARMING:
Onion can dwell well in the wide range of agroclimatic conditions and also in different weather conditions. But mostly they grow well in the winter season and are harvested before the summer season starts. They are grown in the elevation range between 14000 and 18000 under rainfed conditions from the season April-August. They require different temperature at different stages of their growth. At vegetative growth, they require 15 -25 Degree Celcius and at bulb formation stage 16 – 20 Degree Celcius while at the time of harvesting they require 28 – 33 Degree Celcius respectively. Furthermore, check below to know more things in this How to Start Onion Farming Guide in India.
WHAT KIND OF SOIL SUITS FOR ONION FARMING:
They can grow in a different range of soil including sandy loam to clayey loam soil. But however, they dwell well in red loam, black soil sandy loam which is rich in humus are considered to be the best soil for onion cultivation. It should also be provided with good drainage.
SELECTION OF SUITABLE ONION VARIETY:
Mostly cultivated category of onion is white, red and yellow. Further, there are recent inventions that possess high yielding and resistant to diseases and sustain in different climatic conditions and weather. The best onion cultivars that are best for higher production are given below,
- Spring onions
- Yellow onions
- White onions
- Red onions
- Pearl onions
- Cippolini onions
LAND PREPARATION FOR ONION FARMING:
Land preparation is the initial step for the cultivation of onion.Proper land preparation fetches more yield i.e) the soil should be brought to friable conditions and fine tilth by giving 4-5 deep ploughings. The land also should also be free from weeds.
WAY OF PROPAGATION: Vegetable spice is usually propagated by means of seeds.
SEED RATE AND SEED TREATMENT IN ONION CULTIVATION:
Seed rate varies according to the onion variety that you select for Onion Cultivation, soil type, and planting method. But we take as an average the seed rate is about 10 kg /ha. Before sowing them in the field, you should treat with Azospirillum at the rate of 350g per kg of Onion Seeds. You should mix them with the adhesive such as rice gruel. Then keep them under shade for about 30-45 min and then sow them directly on the field. But before sowing them on the field, you should treat the raised bed with VAM at the rate of 1kg/sq meters.
HOW TO RAISE ONION SEEDS FOR ONION CULTIVATION:
Initially, you have to prepare nursery bed of 3-4 m length and 1.25m width. Then sow the onion seeds on the bed. After 45 days of sowing the seedling get ready for transplanting in the main field.
ONION PLANTING SEASON IN ONION CULTIVATION:
You can cultivate the Onion in all season throughout the year as a Kharif season crop, late Kharif crop and Rabi season crop. Where Kharif season June – July and Rabi season – Oct and Nov.
ONION PLANTING METHODS IN ONION CULTIVATION:
You can sow the Onion Seeds either in ridges, flatbed and furrow method of planting. But mostly furrow method of planting is preferred over ridge method. Because it fetches higher yield and also there will be equal sharing of water and fertilizer.
ONION PLANTING SPACING IN ONION CULTIVATION:
Space is common for both furrow and ridge method i.e. 10cm x 15cm where plant spacing should be 10cm. Onion Plants at the age of 45 days are best suitable to plant in the field.
IRRIGATION IN ONION FARMING:
Make sure that you are irrigating at the time of transplanting of seedlings and then second irrigation on the 3rd day of transplanting. Irrigation should be mild. So that the seedling will overcome the stress of transplanting a germinate well. Then you should give the subsequent irrigation at 10 days internal or on a weekly basis. This is completely based on the soil type and the climate because of their shallow roots.
The need of water increases with their maturity stage or bulb formation stage. Because if there is no water supply, it will affect their bulb formation. You should stop the irrigation at the time of maturity i.e., neck falling stage. Also, you should avoid Over-irrigation and under irrigation. Because this invites foliage diseases and affects the quality and quantity of production.
MICRO IRRIGATION AND FERTIGATION IN ONION FARMING:
In case of onion, you can use both drip and sprinkler irrigation. But the pressure for each varies i.e., in case of drip you should maintain the pressure of about 1.5 kg per sq.cm while in case of sprinkler irrigation you should maintain pressure around 2.5kg per sq.cm. While fertigation with drip irrigation is with urea or nitrogen fertilizers. For this, you should apply 50 kg of nitrogen fertilizers as a basal dose and remaining dosage as seven splits at an interval of 10 days.
APPLICATION OF MANURE AND FERTILIZERS IN ONION FARMING:
At the time of land preparation, you should apply 20 tonnes of FYM along with 2kg of Azospirillum and 2kg of Phosphobacteria per hectare land. To enrich your soil further you should apply 50kg of nitrogen, 50kg ZnSo4(Zinc sulfate), 75kg of K(potassium) and 150 kg P (phosphorous) per hectare of land at the time last ploughing. You should also add 50 kg of nitrogen after one month of transplanting the seedlings.
INTERCULTURAL ACTIVITIES IN ONION CULTIVATION:
HOEING AND WEED CONTROL:
Weed is the competitive plant whose presence subside the growth of the main crop. Hence it is essential to keep their population in check. You can achieve this by 3 manual hoeing and mulching. Where mulching reduces the weed growth and also helps in water conservation. Beside this, you should also follow the earthing-up of poor plants to maintain a healthy population of onion bulbs. For this, you have to carry out after 3-4 irrigations.
CROP ROTATION IN ONION CULTIVATION:
To maintain soil fertility and for higher yield crop rotation is to carried out. The best combination of crop rotation for onion is that growing onion as rabi crop and soya as Kharif crop.
PESTS AND DISEASES IN ONION CULTIVATION:
Major pest that you can observe in your onion field were listed below,
- Onion maggots
- Click beetle-Grub
- Spider mites
- Stem and Root nematode
- Stubby root nematode
Like the same, you could observe the following diseases in your onion field,
- Botrytis leaf blight
- Downy mildew
- Purple blotch
- Powdery mildew
- Fusarium basal rot
- Damping off in nursery stage
HARVESTING ONIONS IN ONION CULTIVATION:
Before you get ready for harvesting your onion be sure that you have enough space for storage. Harvesting of onion changes according to planting season, climatic condition, variety and mainly on the market price. If you observe no new leaf emerges and roots and mainly neck fall in your field then your crop is ready to harvest. You can store the Onions for 6 months. And you can sell when the market reaches the appropriate price for your onions. Remember this aspect in this How to Start Onion Farming Guide in India.
HOW TO HARVEST ONIONS IN ONION CULTIVATION:
This is one of the important aspects in this How to Start Onion Farming Guide in India. When you find that your crop is ready to harvest stop irrigation for 2 weeks and harvest onion bulbs by means of bulb pulling. You should keep these onion bulbs along with their tops on the field about 3-4 days. By keeping like this it reduces excess moisture and also prevents shrinkage and colour (mould) development during storage.
YIELD IN ONION CULTIVATION:
This is the last point in this How to Start Onion Farming Guide in India. The yield of onion varies with the soil, climatic conditions. Also, good agricultural practices during the onion cultivation process affect the yield. The yield varies with the period they are sown i.e. if on Kharif and on late Kharif the yield is about 20-35 tonnes whereas on Rabi the yield will be more than 25 tonnes.
Conclusion in How to Start Onion Farming Guide in India:
This is all about the How to Start Onion Farming Guide in India. We hope that this article on How to Start Onion Farming Guide in India is helpful to you. Furthermore, if you have any doubts regarding this How to Start Onion Farming Guide in India, then do contact us via the comment section.