How to Start Sericulture Farming in India: Sericulture is the process of reeling silk from the cocoon of the silkworm. It is also known as silk-rearing. It is the combination of both agriculture and industry. Sericulture is a Greek word where ‘sericos’ means ‘silk’ and ‘culture’ means to ‘rear’. Earlier we have given information on Advantages of Sericulture Farming in India. If you read that information, you will get to know whether to start Sericulture Farming or not. Furthermore, we are going to provide you with the information on How to Start Sericulture Farming in India.
Tips to Start Silkworm Farming in India:
This is the important part in sericulture. Here the degree of care and maintenance in high. Depending on the no. of broods (no. of generations/year) they pass they are classified as follows
- Univoltine: Single brood per year
- Bivoltine: Two brood per year
- Multivoltine: More than two broods per year
This is suitable for tropical areas. Hence mulberry silkworm, because mulberry plant dwells well in tropical region and yield, is throughout the year.
Types of Silkworm Rearing:
There are two types of rearing followed depending on their age. In the life cycle of a silkworm, it passes through five instars. You can follow your own choice.
1. Chawki Rearing: Rearing worm until three instar stage is called as Chawki rearing. Also called as young age worm rearing. This stage of rearing is more susceptible to disease and more care is needed.
2. Late Age Worm Rearing: Rearing worm from third to the fifth instar is called late age worm rearing
Incubation and Brushing:
Good care is required in this rearing. Proper environment conditions should be maintained such as,
- Temperature- 25-26oc
- 16 hrs of light and 8 hrs of darkness
1. This condition enables for uniform hatching within 9-12 days from the day of egg- laid.
2. Once larva emerges out from the egg it is brushed to the rearing bed. Then chop the leaves to the size 0.5 – 1 cms. Spread them, instead sprinkle them over the bed. The leaves which are below the newly emerging one is suitable for feed. Maintain the rearing bed neat and clean.
Moulting of Silkworms:
During moulting (shedding of older skin and formation of new skin) the optimum condition and temperature varies as follows,
• Temperature- 24-25oC
• RH- 65-70 %
Once it pa the second instar it undergoes moulting. The third instar is the important stage and this is the stage between Chawki and late age worm rearing.
Rearing of Late Age Worms:
This starts from the third instar. They feed more leaves. This includes the following stages of rearing. Before entering this stage, keep the rearing room and the equipment clean and disinfectant. The harvested leaves should be of low moisture and high protein and fibres with less carbohydrate level. In this late age stage it consumes, it should possess following controlled environment,
- Temperature- 24-25Oc
- Space required for 100 DFLs – 100-200 sq.ft
- Fourth and fifth instar- 200- 400 sq.ft
- Space required for 100 DFLs-115-225sq.ft
- Fourth and fifth instar-225-550sq.st
After completion of fourth moult, you should not disturb the larvae. Optimum density for moulting for worms (40-45worms/sq.ft). During moulting, you should avoid exposure to sunlight and humid conditions. At this stage, it starts developing pupa(cocoon). After 5-6 days its completes the process of formation of the pupa.
Selection of cocoon:
The average yield is about 40-45 kg(CB) and 45-50 kg(BV) from 100DFLs. It should have a uniform in size and shape, silk content with more shell weight. These entire processes require 26-27 days to complete. Here it completes the pre-cocoon technology.
Now starts the post cocoon technology. It starts with the cocoon selection and followed with cooking and reeling of silk.
For reeling the silk, selection of the cocoon plays a major role. Good cocoon yield more silk fibre. Hence the selected cocoon should possess the following characteristics,
• Equal shape and size,
• Should not be urinated, printed (improper mounting), pierced
• More shell weight
Cooking and Reeling of silk:
Then you have to cocoon to the dry heat or steam to kill the insect inside without damaging the cocoon. We kill the insect inside because if it emerges out then the silk fibre becomes discontinuous and we do not reel lengthy fibre.
Then soak the cocoon in the hot water at the temperature (95 Degree C ). this loosens the gum that holds the fibre together and makes it easy for reeling. This process is nothing but Cooking. Furthermore, you have to remove the entangling filament. Now, you are ready to reel your silk.
Conclusion on Tips to Start Sericulture Farming in India:
We have covered all the steps in the Sericulture Farming. Hence with the above information, you will get an idea so as to start Sericulture Farming at Home. Furthermore, check the link to know more about Sericulture Farming in India.